Indianapolis, colloquially known as Indy, is the state capital and the most populous city in the United States of America. It is located in the east-central region of the Midwest, in the center of Indiana. Indigenous peoples inhabited the area from 10,000 BC. In 1818, the Lenape relinquished their tribal lands in the Treaty of St.
Mary's. In 1821, Indianapolis was founded as a planned city for the new seat of Indiana's state government. The city was placed by Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham on a 1 square mile (2.6 km) grid next to the White River. The completion of the Michigan and national highways and the arrival of the railroad later consolidated the city's position as a manufacturing and transportation center.
Two of its nicknames reflect its historic links to transportation: Crossroads of America and Railroad City. Since 1970, when Unigov was established, local government administration has been operated under the direction of an elected 25-member city-county council headed by the mayor. The Central Indiana Regional Transportation Authority (CIRTA) is a quasi-governmental agency that organizes regional carpool and van rides and operates three connections to the public workforce from Indianapolis to employment centers in Plainfield and Whitestown. Health care in Indianapolis is provided by more than 20 hospitals, most of which belong to private, non-profit health systems such as Ascension St.
Vincent Health, Community Health Network and Indiana University Health. Several are teaching hospitals affiliated with the Indiana University School of Medicine or Marian University School of Osteopathic Medicine. Other major non-profit private hospitals based in the city include Ascension St. Vincent Hospital Indianapolis, Community Hospital East, Community Hospital North and Franciscan Health Indianapolis.
The Indianapolis Home Show has become a tradition for many residents. Victory Field is home to the famous Indianapolis Indians in minor league baseball and is located just west of downtown Indianapolis, just across West Washington Street from White State Park. The most prominent weeklies include NUVO, an alternative weekly, the Indianapolis Recorder, a weekly newspaper that serves the local African-American community, the Indianapolis Business Journal, which reports on local real estate news, and Southside Times. On July 4th every year, people from all over central Indiana gather in downtown Indianapolis with their refrigerators, lawn chairs and blankets to watch the state's largest fireworks show at 9 p.m., atop Regions Bank Tower.
Located a few blocks north of Monument Circle and Veterans Memorial Plaza is the Central Branch of Indianapolis Public Library - a hallmark of Indianapolis education. Every year in early August tens of thousands of devoted players from around the world arrive in downtown Indianapolis dressed in elaborate sci-fi and fantasy customs during what can only be described as 4 days of total gaming euphoria at Indiana Convention Center. Just steps away from numerous first-class hotels in Indianapolis, exclusive restaurants and some of best shopping in town is located at Indianapolis Motor Speedway - world's largest sports venue. Each small satellite around Indianapolis gives a certain distinctive character to its side of town making it an interesting place to live.
The Indianapolis Metropolitan Police Department (IMPD) is responsible for law enforcement in this city since it moved from Corydon in 1825 when it became capital and seat of government for Indiana state. From 1921 to 1928 Stephenson's Indiana Klan was most powerful political and social organization controlling City Council and Board of School Commissioners among others. The Indiana State Fairgrounds are located northeast of downtown Indianapolis, on 38th Street and Fall Creek Parkway.