Indianapolis is a vibrant city and the capital of the U. S. state of Indiana. Located in the east-central Midwest region, it is the twelfth largest city in the United States.
The city is situated on the White River, at its confluence with Fall Creek, near the center of the state. Indigenous peoples have inhabited the area since 10,000 BC. In 1818, the Delaware ceded their tribal lands in the Treaty of St. Mary's and in 1821, Indianapolis was founded as a planned city for the new seat of Indiana's state government. The city was laid out by Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham on a 1 square mile (2.6 km) grid next to the White River.
The completion of the Michigan and national highways and the arrival of the railroad later consolidated Indianapolis' position as a manufacturing and transportation center. Two of its nicknames reflect its historic links to transportation: Crossroads of America and Railroad City. Since 1970, local government administration has operated under the direction of an elected 25-member city-county council headed by the mayor. The Central Indiana Regional Transportation Authority (CIRTA) is a quasi-governmental agency that organizes regional carpool and van rides and operates three connections to public workforce from Indianapolis to employment centers in Plainfield and Whitestown. The city is also home to several private, non-profit health care networks such as Ascension (St. Vincent Indianapolis Hospital); Franciscan Health (Franciscan Health Indianapolis); and Community Health Network (Community Hospital East, Community Hospital North and Community Hospital South).In addition to its rich history, Indianapolis is also a center for academic research in medicine and health sciences, home to institutions such as the Indiana Bioscience Research Institute, the School of Medicine, the School of Nursing and the Indiana University School of Dentistry; the Marian University School of Osteopathic Medicine; and the American College of Sports Medicine. Most of Indianapolis is located within Indiana's 7th congressional district, represented by Democrat André Carson, while the fifth northern district is part of Indiana's 5th congressional district, represented by Republican Victoria Spartz.